Whey protein

What is Whey Protein?

Whey proteins are extracted from whey, which is the aqueous fraction of milk that is obtained during the manufacturing of cheese. Currently, however, it is also possible to obtain whey proteins by removing proteins from milk prior to cheese making. Whey proteins constitute about 20% of the total amount of proteins found in milk, with the remaining 80% essentially consisting of casein.

Whey proteins are extracted and purified through the use of various techniques that yield different concentrations of whey proteins. When using microfiltration, for instance, the proteins are filtered through a membrane whereas by using the ion exchange process, they are extracted by taking advantage of their electric charge. The filtration process is what makes most of the difference between the various types of whey protein that are available. Different methods lead to distinct production costs as well as purity levels. The more thorough the filtration process is, the higher the percentage of actual protein and the lower the carbohydrate and fat content will be.

Different Whey Protein forms

  • Whey protein concentrate: Minimal filtration with 70% to 80% of protein, the remainder consisting of fats and carbohydrates.
  • Whey protein isolate: Thorough filtration, resulting in a supplement with about 95% of protein, which makes it more expensive and purer than whey concentrate, with much lower levels of fats and sugars.
  • Hydrolysed whey protein: besides being thoroughly filtered, it was also subjected to a process of hydrolysis, which means that the protein structure is broken down into shorter peptide chains that are more easily absorbed by the body.

Main benefits of Whey Protein:

  • Complete essential amino acid profile, being particularly rich in branched-chain amino acids
  • Source of amino acids essential for muscle synthesis
  • Source of bioactive peptides, responsible for several biological activities

References

Devries MC, Phillips SM. 2015. Supplemental protein in support of muscle mass and health: advantage whey. J Food Sci, 80: A8-A15.

Rubio J et al., 2007. Aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii) improve scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. Food Chem Toxicol, 45(10): 1882-90.

Stone M et al., 2009. A pilot investigation into the effect of maca supplementation on physical activity and sexual desire in sportsmen. J Ethnopharmacol, 126(3): 574-6.

Gonzales GF et al., 2014. Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp), a review of its biological properties. Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica, 31(1): 100-10.

Gonzales GF et al., 2002. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on sexual desire and its absent relationship with serum testosterone levels in adult healthy men. Andrologia, 34(6): 367-72.

Zenico T et al., 2009. Subjective effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) extract on well-being and sexual performances in patients with mild erectile dysfunction: a randomised, double-blind clinical trial. Andrologia, 41(2): 95-9.

Gonzales GF et al., 2008. Antagonist effect of Lepidium meyenii (red maca) on prostatic hyperplasia in adult mice. Andrologia, 40(3): 179-85.

Brooks NA et al., 2008. Beneficial effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on psychological symptoms and measures of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women are not related to estrogen or androgen content. Menopause, 15(6):1157-62.

Meissner HO et al., 2006. Therapeutic effects or pre-gelatinized Maca (Lepidium Peruvianum Chacon) used as a non-hormonal alternative to HRT in perimenopausal women - clinical pilot study. Int J Biomed Sci, 2: 143-159.

Meissner HO et al., 2005. Use of gelatinized Maca (Lepidium peruvianum) in early postmenopausal women. Int J Biomed Sci, 1(1): 33-45.

Bhaaskar S, Shalini V, Helen A. 2011. Quercetin regulates oxidized LDL induced inflammatory changes in human PBMCs by modulating the TLR-NF-kB signaling pathway. Immunobiology, 216(3): 367-73.

Derlindati E et al., 2012. Quercetin-3-O-glucuronide affects the gene expression profile of M1 and M2a human macrophages exhibiting anti-inflammatory effects. Food Funct. 3(11): 1144-52.

Nickel T, et al. 2011. Immunoregulatory effects of the flavonol quercetin in vitro and in vivo. Eur J Nutr. 50(3): 163-72.

Cavalcanti E et al., 2014. Administration of reconstituted polyphenol oil bodies efficiently suppresses dendritic cell inflammatory pathways and acute intestinal inflammation. PLoS One. 9(2): e88898.

Jiménez-Aliaga K et al., 2011. Quercetin and rutin exhibit antiamyloidogenic and fibril-disaggregating effects in vitro and potent antioxidant activity in APPswe cells. Life Sci. 89(25-26): 939-45.

Yu ES et al., 2008. Regulatory mechanisms of IL-2 and IFNgamma suppression by quercetin in T helper cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 76(1): 70-8.

Park HJ et al., 2011. Quercetin regulates Th1/Th2 balance in a murine model of asthma. Int Immunopharmacol. 9(3): 261-7.

Terasawa N, Okamoto K, Nakada K, Masuda K, Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Intake on Endurance Exercise Performance and Anti-fatigue in Student Athletes, J Oleo Sci. 2017 Jul 1;66(7):723-733. doi: 10.5650/jos.ess17053

Whigham LD, Watras AC, Schoeller DA. Efficacy of conjugated linoleic acid for reducing fat mass: a meta-analysis in humans, Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 May;85(5):1203-11. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/85.5.1203

Gaullier JM et al. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for 1 y reduces body fat mass in healthy overweight humans, Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jun;79(6):1118-25. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/79.6.1118

Belitz H.D. et al. (2009). Food Chemistry "1 Amino Acids, Peptides, Proteins", 4th revised and extended Edition, 8-9.

Moro T et al. Amino Acid Sensing in Skeletal Muscle, Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Nov;27(11):796-806. doi: 10.1016/j.tem.2016.06.010.

Belitz, H.D. et al. (2009). Food Chemistry "3 Lipids", 4th revised and extended Edition, 215

Teixeira, A. et al. (2014). Natural Bioactive Compounds from Winery By-Products as Health Promoters: A Review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 15: 15638-15678

Corrochano A. R. et al. (2018). Invited review: Whey proteins as antioxidants and promoters of cellular antioxidant pathways. Journal of Dairy Science, 101: 4747–4761

Schneider JY et al. Effects of chronic oral L-arginine administration on the L-arginine/NO pathway in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease or coronary artery disease: L-Arginine prevents renal loss of nitrite, the major NO reservoir. Amino Acids. 2015 Sep;47(9):1961-74. doi: 10.1007/s00726-015-2031-0

Wang R. Et al. L-Arginine Enhances Protein Synthesis by Phosphorylating mTOR (Thr 2446) in a Nitric Oxide-Dependent Manner in C2C12 Cells. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018 Apr 26;2018:7569127. doi. 10.1155/2018/7569127

Melik Z. Et al. L-arginine as dietary supplement for improving microvascular function. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2017;65(3):205-217. doi: 10.3233/CH-16159

McNeal CJ et al. Safety and Effectiveness of Arginine in Adults. J Nutr. 2016 Dec;146(12):2587S-2593S. doi: 10.3945/jn.116.234740

McNeal CJ et al. Safety of dietary supplementation with arginine in adult humans. Amino Acids. 2018 Jun 1. doi: 10.1007/s00726-018-2594-7

Berg J.M., Tymoczko J.L, Stryer L. Biochemistry. 5th edition. New York: W H Freeman; 2002

Mangano KM et al, Dietary protein is associated with musculoskeletal health independently of dietary pattern: the Framingham Third Generation Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Mar;105(3):714-722. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.116.136762

Ministero della Salute (March, 2018). Altri Nutrienti e Altre Sostanze ad Effetto Nutritivo o Fisiologico

Shimomura, Y. and Kitaura, Y. (2018). Physiological and pathological roles of branched-chain amino acids in theregulation of protein and energy metabolism and neurological functions. Pharmacological Research 133: 215-217

Sung, D. J. et al. (2016). Role of l-carnitine in sports performance: Focus on ergogenic aid and antioxidant. Science & Sports 31: 177-188.

This website uses cookies to improve your browsing experience and for statistical purposes. By visiting us, you're agreeing to its use. For more information on the cookies used, how to manage or deactivate them in this device, please click here.