O Ómega 3 é um tipo de ácido gordo essencial para o normal crescimento e desenvolvimento do organismo e que, por não ser naturalmente produzido pelo nosso organismo, tem de ser obtido exclusivamente através da dieta.
Os ácidos gordos Ómega 3 são polinsaturados (possuem duas ou mais ligações duplas) e caracterizam-se por possuir a primeira ligação dupla no terceiro átomo de carbono. Existem diferentes tipos de Ómega 3: o ácido docosahexaenóico (DHA) e o ácido eicosapentaenóico (EPA), que provêm ambos de fontes animais, e ainda o ácido alfa-linolénico (ALA), que provém essencialmente de fontes vegetais. O nosso organismo tem a capacidade de converter o ALA em EPA e DHA.

As melhores fontes de ómega 3 são:

  • Peixes gordos (atum, salmão, sardinhas, anchovas, truta, cavala)
  • Óleo de fígado de bacalhau
  • Óleo de canola e linhaça
  • Feijões de soja e tofu
  • Nozes e sementes (ex: linhaça e chia)


Devries MC, Phillips SM. 2015. Supplemental protein in support of muscle mass and health: advantage whey. J Food Sci , 80: A8-A15.

Rubio J et al., 2007. Aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii) improve scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. Food Chem Toxicol, 45(10): 1882-90.

Stone M et al., 2009. A pilot investigation into the effect of maca supplementation on physical activity and sexual desire in sportsmen. J Ethnopharmacol, 126(3): 574-6.

Gonzales GF et al., 2014. Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp), a review of its biological properties. Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica, 31(1): 100-10.

Gonzales GF et al., 2002. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on sexual desire and its absent relationship with serum testosterone levels in adult healthy men. Andrologia, 34(6): 367-72.

Zenico T et al., 2009. Subjective effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) extract on well-being and sexual performances in patients with mild erectile dysfunction: a randomised, double-blind clinical trial. Andrologia, 41(2): 95-9.

Gonzales GF et al., 2008. Antagonist effect of Lepidium meyenii (red maca) on prostatic hyperplasia in adult mice. Andrologia, 40(3): 179-85.

Brooks NA et al., 2008. Beneficial effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on psychological symptoms and measures of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women are not related to estrogen or androgen content. Menopause, 15(6):1157-62.

Meissner HO et al., 2006. Therapeutic effects or pre-gelatinized Maca (Lepidium Peruvianum Chacon) used as a non-hormonal alternative to HRT in perimenopausal women - clinical pilot study. Int J Biomed Sci, 2: 143-159.

Meissner HO et al., 2005. Use of gelatinized Maca (Lepidium peruvianum) in early postmenopausal women. Int J Biomed Sci, 1(1): 33-45.

Bhaaskar S, Shalini V, Helen A. 2011. Quercetin regulates oxidized LDL induced inflammatory changes in human PBMCs by modulating the TLR-NF-kB signaling pathway. Immunobiology, 216(3): 367-73.

Derlindati E et al., 2012. Quercetin-3-O-glucuronide affects the gene expression profile of M1 and M2a human macrophages exhibiting anti-inflammatory effects. Food Funct. 3(11): 1144-52.

Nickel T, et al. 2011. Immunoregulatory effects of the flavonol quercetin in vitro and in vivo. Eur J Nutr. 50(3): 163-72.

Cavalcanti E et al., 2014. Administration of reconstituted polyphenol oil bodies efficiently suppresses dendritic cell inflammatory pathways and acute intestinal inflammation. PLoS One. 9(2): e88898.

Jiménez-Aliaga K et al., 2011. Quercetin and rutin exhibit antiamyloidogenic and fibril-disaggregating effects in vitro and potent antioxidant activity in APPswe cells. Life Sci. 89(25-26): 939-45.

Yu ES et al., 2008. Regulatory mechanisms of IL-2 and IFNgamma suppression by quercetin in T helper cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 76(1): 70-8.

Park HJ et al., 2011. Quercetin regulates Th1/Th2 balance in a murine model of asthma. Int Immunopharmacol. 9(3): 261-7.

Terasawa N, Okamoto K, Nakada K, Masuda K, Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Intake on Endurance Exercise Performance and Anti-fatigue in Student Athletes, J Oleo Sci. 2017 Jul 1;66(7):723-733. doi: 10.5650/jos.ess17053

Whigham LD, Watras AC, Schoeller DA. Efficacy of conjugated linoleic acid for reducing fat mass: a meta-analysis in humans, Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 May;85(5):1203-11. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/85.5.1203

Gaullier JM et al. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for 1 y reduces body fat mass in healthy overweight humans, Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jun;79(6):1118-25. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/79.6.1118

Belitz H.D. et al. (2009). Food Chemistry "1 Amino Acids, Peptides, Proteins", 4th revised and extended Edition, 8-9.

Moro T et al. Amino Acid Sensing in Skeletal Muscle, Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Nov;27(11):796-806. doi: 10.1016/j.tem.2016.06.010.

Belitz, H.D. et al. (2009). Food Chemistry "3 Lipids", 4th revised and extended Edition, 215

Teixeira, A. et al. (2014). Natural Bioactive Compounds from Winery By-Products as Health Promoters: A Review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 15: 15638-15678

Corrochano A. R. et al. (2018). Invited review: Whey proteins as antioxidants and promoters of cellular antioxidant pathways. Journal of Dairy Science, 101: 4747–4761

Schneider JY et al. Effects of chronic oral L-arginine administration on the L-arginine/NO pathway in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease or coronary artery disease: L-Arginine prevents renal loss of nitrite, the major NO reservoir. Amino Acids. 2015 Sep;47(9):1961-74. doi: 10.1007/s00726-015-2031-0

Wang R. Et al. L-Arginine Enhances Protein Synthesis by Phosphorylating mTOR (Thr 2446) in a Nitric Oxide-Dependent Manner in C2C12 Cells. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018 Apr 26;2018:7569127. doi. 10.1155/2018/7569127

Melik Z. Et al. L-arginine as dietary supplement for improving microvascular function. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2017;65(3):205-217. doi: 10.3233/CH-16159

McNeal CJ et al. Safety and Effectiveness of Arginine in Adults. J Nutr. 2016 Dec;146(12):2587S-2593S. doi: 10.3945/jn.116.234740

McNeal CJ et al. Safety of dietary supplementation with arginine in adult humans. Amino Acids. 2018 Jun 1. doi: 10.1007/s00726-018-2594-7

Berg J.M., Tymoczko J.L, Stryer L. Biochemistry. 5th edition. New York: W H Freeman; 2002

Mangano KM et al, Dietary protein is associated with musculoskeletal health independently of dietary pattern: the Framingham Third Generation Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Mar;105(3):714-722. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.116.136762

Ministero della Salute (March, 2018). Altri Nutrienti e Altre Sostanze ad Effetto Nutritivo o Fisiologico

Shimomura, Y. and Kitaura, Y. (2018). Physiological and pathological roles of branched-chain amino acids in theregulation of protein and energy metabolism and neurological functions. Pharmacological Research 133: 215-217

Sung, D. J. et al. (2016). Role of l-carnitine in sports performance: Focus on ergogenic aid and antioxidant. Science & Sports 31: 177-188.

Este site utiliza cookies para melhorar a sua experiência de navegação e para fins estatísticos. Ao visitar o site, está a consentir a sua utilização. Para mais informações sobre os cookies utilizados, respetiva gestão ou desativação neste dispositivo, clique aqui.