L-arginine is a chemical building block called an "amino acid." It is obtained from the diet and found in red meat, poultry, fish, and dairy products. L-arginine is converted in the body into a chemical called nitric oxide. Nitric oxide causes blood vessels to widen, leading to improved blood flow.
L-citrulline is one of the three dietary amino acids in the urea cycle, alongside L-arginine and L-ornithine. Due to its vasodilating properties and its synergistic action together with L-arginine, it is used as a sports performance supplement for prolonged exercise, whether aerobic or anaerobic.
Creatine monohydrate is the most studied form of creatine. With a daily intake of 3 g per day, it has been proven to increase physical performance in successive bursts of short-term, high-intensity exercises.
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Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are three amino acids: leucine, isoleucine, and valine. BCAAs are of great importance to ensure an anabolic response from the body.
HMB (short for ß-hydroxy ß-methylbutyrate) is a metabolite of the branched-chain amino acid leucine that, along with KIC (α-keto-isocaproate) and isovaleryl-CoA, mediates the effects of leucine. Compared to leucine, HMB appears to be significantly more potent on a gram-per-gram basis.
Leucic acid (synonymous with the term α-hydroxyisocaproic acid and the latter's acronym HICA) is also a metabolite of the amino acid leucine; leucine initially follows one of two possible metabolic pathways (conversion into KIC or HMB) and then some of the KIC is further converted into HICA.
Glutamine is one of the 20 naturally occurring amino acids in dietary protein. More specifically, it is a conditionally essential amino acid (considered essential during periods of disease and muscle breakdown, typical of physical trauma). It is found as an isolated amino acid, and can be found in high levels in meat and eggs.
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Beta-alanine is ideal for those who are engaged in high-intensity physical exercise and/or in need of explosive energy. It's the perfect choice for endurance sports.
Caffeine keeps its structure whether it's in coffee, energy drinks, tea or pills. It's widely known as a powerful stimulant.
Taurine is an organic acid that acts as a lipid/membrane stabilizer in the body. Taurine exerts most of its benefits vicariously, through other compounds in the body, but also has some of its own on a cellular level. At this time, taurine is being subjected to intensive research.
Guarana is a climbing plant native to the Amazon, whose seeds contain approximately four times the amount of caffeine found in coffee beans. The mix of other natural chemicals contained in guarana seeds is thought to heighten the stimulant effects of guarana over caffeine alone.
Adaptogenic and Absorption Intensifier
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The term "Vitamin B6" applies to a collection of molecules (vitamers) that share a similar structure to the one of the pyridoxine molecule. It takes up the form of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) after ingestion, acting in the human body as an essential vitamin. Vitamin B6 is one of the B-vitamins, used for producing a necessary type of coenzyme in the body.
Ginkgo biloba is a popular supplement and one of the top-selling herbal medicines. Ginkgo biloba extract is collected from the dried green leaves of the plant and is available as a liquid extract, as capsules, and as tablets.